Volume 1 Issue 5
Study on the Prevalence of Subclinical Mastitis and the related Bacterial Flora in the Raw Milk of Primiparous Indigenous Greek Goats
Tzora Athina*, Voidarou Chrissa, Giannenas Ilias, Tsinas Anastasios, Skoufos Ioannis
The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence, prevalence and etiology of subclinical mastitis in primiparous dairy goats of indigenous Greek breeds. A total number of 340 healthy primiparous goats were used. Milk samples were taken directly from both udder cistern from individual goats and were subjected to bacteriological analysis. Bacterial growth was observed in 34.57% of total milk samples. From the latter figure 51% concerned only the half - udder that was affected. Bacterial isolates were identified on the basis of colonial morphology, Gram staining and automated phenotypic identification system Vitek 2 (bioMérieux).
Factors Associated with Puppy Morbidity and Mortality among the Breeding Kennels in Nairobi and its Environs in Kenya
Andrew Konde Matole*, George Karuoya Gitau, Japheth Chesire Kiptoon and Daniel Waweru Gakuya
Dogs are extensively employed in security and protection of property both in urban and rural areas. Besides, many other dogs are also kept as pets for companionship in urban families providing a unique, intimate, emotional bond and relationship that people share with their pets giving important meaning to their lives. Majority of puppies, however, never survive puppyhood and die within 6 months after birth. Majority of them die because of worm infestation, viral or bacterial infections, trauma, abnormalities or poor mother/puppy bond. The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with puppy morbidity and mortality in breeding kennels in Nairobi and its environs in Kenya. The study was done for a period of 6 months.
Occurrence and Factors affecting Chronic Gastrointestinal Signs after Acute Gastric Dilatation-Volvulus Surgery in Dogs
Pia Björkenheim*, Anna Hielm-Björkman, Pirre Lamposaari, Anna-Maija Virtala, Thomas Spillmann, Outi Laitinen-Vapaavuori
To date, several studies have assessed risk factors for the development of gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) in dogs. However, the association between chronic gastrointestinal (GI) signs and acute GDV has rarely been investigated. The purpose of this retrospective case-control study was to investigate the occurrence of chronic GI signs in 103 dogs after acute GDV surgery performed between January 2004 and May 2008 and to identify possible risk factors associated with such signs. After GDV surgery, 54.4 % of the dogs suffered from at least one chronic GI sign.
In Vivo Comparison of the Osteogenic Properties of Equine Mesenchymal Stem Cells From Periosteum, Muscle, and Bone Marrow with and without
Demineralized Bone Matrix
Rodolfo Nino-Fong, Blanca P. Esparza Gonzalez, Enrique Aburto, Laurie A. McDuffee*
Bone healing in horses is often problematic because the high forces associated with trauma and soft tissue disruption lead to poor healing. Limitations in this process have led to research of new methods to promote bone healing in horses. We evaluated the ability of equine MSCs with scaffolds to produce new bone in nude rats after intramuscular surgical implantation of a combination of mesenchymal stem cells and scaffolds.
Impact of Milk Somatic Cell Count on Escherichia coli Growth in Vitro
Monique Lind-Böhm, Eva Kalivoda, Holm Zerbe, Wolfram Petzl*
Bovine mastitis is of major economic impact on global dairy industries. Overshooting Escherichia coli (E. coli) growth due to impaired function of polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) increases severity of acute mastitis. During mastitis, PMN account for the majority of somatic cells in milk. Besides PMN, soluble antimicrobial factors are secreted into milk. The objective of the current study was for how long and to what extent immigrating PMN and soluble factors in milk can inhibit E. coli growth in vitro.
Type I Interferons and Their Efficacy in Treating Feline Retroviral Diseases: A Review
Gomez-Lucia, Esperanza*, Collado, Victorio M, Miró, Guadalupe, Martín, Sonsoles, Domenech, Ana
Interferon is one of the molecules that the organism has ready for fighting viral infections, as it forms part of the innate immune system. In this review we briefly describe why and how the different types of type I interferon (IFN-I) prevent viral infection, some of the mechanisms that viruses have for evading these actions, and their action on cells, both healthy and tumoral. The second part of the review focuses on the effect of IFN-I on retroviral infections, specifically on their use for treating feline immunodeficiency and feline leukemia viral infections.